A silicon–potash fertilizer prepared from magnesium slag and how it can improve soil fertility and agronomic performance. Dry weight and silicon concentration of rice tissues. Steel works slag is a by-product of the basic oxygen steel making process used by orus at their Port Talbot, Scunthorpe and Teeside works. The results are summarized below. Did you know that all silicate fertilizer used in Korea is made from POSCO slag? lignite sludge pond sludgeSucrose slagstarch pulp Bentonite clay Diatomite c materials mix with mineral materials Organic Ball Pellets Fertilizer Production Line Organic fertilizer production line is a complete set of equipment from raw materials collection to the organic fertilizer granules packing As such, accumulation of Si in straw can enhance plant resistance to diseases as silicon concentration in rice straw was negatively correlated with disease severity [43–45]. China is the largest producer of steel in the world, huge amounts of steel slag are produced every year in China [17], but only 10% of the steel slag is recycled [18]. Fertilisers from Blast Furnace and Steel Slags233 Кб. The total Cd concentration is 0.28 mg kg-1 Cd, exceeding the Chinese Soil Environmental Quality Standard (0.2 mg kg-1 Cd) (GB15618-1995). The range of Ca content was also close to that observed with column test, shown in Fig. As a product of waste steel industries, steel slag used in this experiment has been shown great and sustainable potential to reduce Cd accumulation in rice grain. With the rapid industrialization and economic development in the recent decades, soil heavy metal pollution has been becoming a serious environmental problem in China [11, 12]. Working topics. A consecutive pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences from March to December 2015. The Pb concentrations of rice grain in all the treatments were found to be below the maximum allowable limit level (0.2 mg kg-1) (GB 2762–2005). The main co-products produced during iron and crude steel production are slags (90% by mass), dusts and sludges. Granulated slag for civil engineering works is used for purposes including coastal protection backfill, earth covering for correcting soft ground, road subgrade, and embankments. Figure 16 summarizes the yield of brown rice. 9, but it decreased rapidly with time as the rice plant absorbed it with growth. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. It was reported that continuous dissolution of Si from steel slag was negatively influenced by the increase of soil solution pH and Ca concentration. This process varies in different plants and is only described in outline here. Yes PLoS ONE 11(12): Yes Steel slag is a byproduct from steel industries which accounts for 15–20% of total steel production [16]. slag volumes have been reduced on commercial scale from about 140 kg/tonne steel to 60 kg/tonne steel. The first factor influencing plant available–silicon concentration may be associated with the different weather conditions in the two seasons. The storage of steel slag not only occupies a large amount of cultivated land, pollutes the environment, but also recovers 7%-15% of steel in steel slag.Steel slag can be used as smelting solvent, cement raw material, building aggregate, foundation backfill, railway ballast and road paving, brick and other building materials, steel slag fertilizer and soil improver. Cultivation Experiments in the Paddy. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. Many studies demonstrate that steel slag–based silicate fertilizer was effective in improving both the quality of the degraded paddy soils and the yield and quality of crops [22, 33, 38]. The European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction is considered a useful technique for determining chemical forms of metals in soils which provides information concerning metal potential mobility and plant availability [29–31]. Cultivation Experiments in the Paddy Fields, 3.1. Pb concentrations of rice grain in all the treatments were below the maximum allowable limit value (0.2 mg kg-1). On the basis of the above results, the fertilizer made of steelmaking slag can amend the damage to rice plants caused by Na ion through the supplementation of Ca, enhancement of the soil nitrogen mineralization by increasing the pH, and acceleration of photosynthesis by the supplementation of Si. Steel slag is the main waste product in the steelmaking process. In the present experiment, original soil pH was 5.48, but soil pH reached 6.43–6.68 when the slag application rate was was higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil (Fig 1), which is in line with previous reports [37, 38]. Like the old basic slag our grade of steel works slag called Super Slag Basic is principally a lime based material which has absorbed the . '•The slag from the Thomas-Gilchrist process for making steel has long been supposed to have valuable properties as a manure. All data in figures and tables were shown as means ± SD of three replicates. Editorial Committee of Soil Environment Analysis: Soil Environment Analysis, Hakuyusha, Tokyo, (1997). The pile of steel slag occupies a huge area of arable land, and causes environmental pollution; moreover, 7%-15% steel can be recycled from steel slag. Slag alone or acidified slag was added to two Fe-deficient calcareous soils at different rates. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.g005, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.t003. Changes in soil pH in paddy field in 2012. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. Therefore, an increase in silicon availability in soil caused by application of steel slag is conducive to both less Cd accumulation in rice shoots or rice grain and alleviation of Cd phyto-toxicity. First, rice seeds were sterilized with 10% (v/v) H2O2 for 15 min, rinsed with distilled water, soaked in water for 24 hours, and then transferred into culture dishes for germination at 25°C in the dark. 7) Steel making slag (also: steel slag) is produced during the conversion of hot metal to crude steel in a basic oxygen furnace or during the melting of scrap in an electric arc furnace. Five Si treatments with three replicates each were designed. Slag from the … Thirty days later, basal fertilizers supplied were 0.2 g N kg-1 as urea, 52 mg P kg-1 as potassium dihydrogen phosphate, and 84 mg K kg-1 as potassium sulfate. However, total concentrations of heavy metals in soil provide very limited information about their chemical behavior and potential fate [27, 28]. Production of slag silicate fertilizer in Japan peaked at 1,400,000 t per year in 1968 (Kato 2002) and decreased Correspondence: K. ITO, Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 20-1 Shintomi, Futtsu, Chiba 2938511, Japan. Moreover, model predictions have shown that, in principle, all slag can be recycled and the phosphorous extracted to produce fertilizer. Total concentrations of Cd and Pb in soil, or steel slag or plant tissue were digested using the US EPA method 3052. Soil pH was determined in 1:2.5 soil/water suspensions using Sartorins PB-10 pH electrode; soil organic matter was measured by wet digestion with K2Cr2O7/H2SO4; total N was determined by the micro-Kjeldahl method; available P (Olsen P) was extracted by 0.5 M NaHCO3 [pH 8.5, soil/NaHCO3 ratio of 1:20] and shaken for 0.5 h and determined by molybdenum blue method; available K was extracted by 1.0 M CH3COONH4 [pH 7.0, soil/CH3COONH4 ratio of 1:10] and shaken for 0.5 h and determined by AAS; available Si, extracted by 0.25 M citric acid, [soil/(citric acid) ratio of 1:10] and incubated at 40°C for 5 h and analyzed by silicon molybdenum blue spectrophotometry [32, 33]. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. J. Ma and E. Takahashi E: Soil, Fertilizer, and Plant Silicon Research in Japan, Elsevier, Amsterdam, (2002), 107. In the past 45 years, a total of 13.76 million tons of … Portions of the soil samples were air-dried for analysis of basic chemical parameters, and the remaining samples were freeze-dried for analysis of heavy metal fractions. In the Bessemer converter, there is a lining of lime which, in the process of manufacturing the steel, takes up a large percentage of phosphorus, in the form of phosphoric acid. Compared with the control treatment, soil pH in the Si4 and Si5 treatments were increased by 0.70 and 0.86 units, respectively, in the early rice season, compared to 0.58 and 0.67 units in the late rice season. According to these results, fertilizer made of steelmaking slag can improve the damage to rice plants caused by Na ion through the supplementation of Ca, enhancement of the soil nitrogen mineralization by increasing the pH, and acceleration of photosynthesis by the addition of Si. Yes Slag run-off from one of the open hearth furnaces of a steel mill, Republic Steel, Youngstown, Ohio, November 1941. A good example is steelmaking slag: quicklime and magnesite are introduced for refractory protection, neutralising the alumina and silica separated from the metal, and assist in the removal of sulfur and phosphorus from the steel. B. 3, but the decreasing trend with time was not observed in the column test. The application of fertilizer made of slag increased the yield by approximately 7–9% without statistically significant differences, not only in 2012 but also in 2013. The significant amount of slag generated result in serious environmental issues and resource losses. No, Is the Subject Area "Straw" applicable to this article? The cadmium concentrations in rice grains decreased significantly compared with the control treatment. P fertilizers – rock phosphate – bone meal – basic slag The element was discovered in 1669 and was found to be widely distributed in the lithosphere as phosphates. Effect of steel slag fertilizer application on Cd uptake by rice grain. M.  Numata,  N.  Maruoka,  S-j. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click The concentration of Cd and Pb was determined with ICP-MS, while that of Hg and As was measured with atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS-2202). Blast furnace slag is made during the melting and reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace. The Cd concentration of early rice grain and late rice grain was 48% and 63.5% lower in the Si5 treatment than in the control treatment, respectively. This result suggests that the soil used had a strong buffering capacity at this pH value range (near neutral). The fertilizer made of slag increased Ca and Si but the change in Na was not evident. (3) The Na content in the pore water of DS was much higher than OS, but decreased through the exchange of water during the experiment. Fertilizers made of steelmaking slag are important inexpensive materials for recovering degraded paddy fields. '•The slag from the Thomas-Gilchrist process for making steel has long been supposed to have valuable properties as a manure. The maximum application rate of Mo slag to soil in present study is 10.0% (w/w). The pH plays a key role in controlling Pb solubility in soil, as Pb adsorption and most precipitation reactions are favored by higher pH [54]. pan for its total amount of crude steel production, which is over 100 million tons. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. In the late rice season, application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 200 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil significantly increased dry weight of straw compared with CK treatment, and equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil significantly increased grain yield, with 14.3% and 16.7% higher in the Si4 and Si5 treatments respectively. This development is of particular significance since the supply of low-phosphorous iron ores is diminishing at an ever increasing rate. Composition of fertilizer made of steelmaking slag. However, solid-phase diffusion into the lattice of oxides or into the micropores of these oxide materials were considered more stable than pH-moderated sorption of heavy metals in soils [53]. Effect of steel slag fertilizer application on Pb uptake by rice grain. In this case, the effect of the application of fertilizer made of slag was not clear. Yes In the past steelmaking processes were exclusively designed for the production of specific quality of iron and steel. 9 (2018) 4/14 3 Fertilizer Components of DM Calcium Silicate One type of slag fertilizer for growing paddy rice is slag siliceous fertilizer (registration name: Calcium Silicate) made from iron and steel slag. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, In the late rice season, the silicon concentration of rice straw was significantly higher in all the treatments with slag than in the control treatment, with the silicon concentration being 78.7% and 89.3% higher in the Si4 and Si5 treatments respectively. Re-acidification of the soil was a natural soil process, which may result in the liberation of bound metals [47]. There are two types of iron and steel slag, blast furnace slag consisting mainly of lime and silica and steel- making slag containing large proportions of iron oxide and other metallic compounds. Fertilizer. Mean values followed by different letters (a, b, c) in the same season are significantly different (P< 0.05). Si deficiency in paddy soil has been recognized as a limiting factor for rice production [2, 8]. here. Change in the Na content of pore water in paddy field in 2012. From the results above, it is confirmed that the general trend of pore water and soil in the actual paddy can be simulated by the column test, except for the change in Si content with time in pore water. furnace slag. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.g002. Figures 13 and 14 show the changes in Ca and Si content of pore water (soil solution) in 2012 and 2013. Effect of steel slag fertilizer application on relative content of Cd in each fraction of soil in early rice. fertiliser. Effect of steel slag fertilizer application on total Cd concentration in soil. No, Is the Subject Area "Fertilizers" applicable to this article? Slag ― a mixture of silica and calcium, magnesium and iron oxides ― can be used as a fertilizer that can assist in fortifying disease resistance in rice because of its mineral components. Kim,  S.  Ueda and  S.  Kitamura: https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2015-640, http://www.maff.go.jp/j/press/nousin/sekkei/110624.html. Yes During the rice growing period, applied to maintain a 2-cm water layer and no pesticides were applied. In conclusion, application of steel slag reduced soil acidity, increased plant–availability of silicon, promoted rice growth and inhibited Cd transport to rice grain in the soil-plant system. Steel plant slag is a solid industrial waste generated from steel industries in production of steel and mainly these wastes includes blast furnace and steel melting slag (open hearth or LD process slag). In the present study, a pot experiments were carried out (1) to assess the effect of application rates of steel slag on improving soil acidity and silicon-availability (2) to demonstrate the effects of steel slags on the immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil, (3) to test the impacts of slag application on rice productivity and metals accumulation. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. The Na contents of soil solution in the plot where the fertilizer was applied were relatively high, and this trend was also observed in the column test, as shown in Fig. Each year, about 45 million tonnes of ferrous slag (iron and steel slag) is generated in Europe. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Data are means of three replicates. In the same treatment with slag, lower Cd concentrations were observed in the late rice than in the early rice. After the steel slag is crushed, the qualified crushed steel slag will be fed into the cylinder by the feeder. B. The Cd concentration of early rice grain in the Si5 treatment and that of late rice grain in the Si4 and Si5 treatments were all below the maximum allowable limit level (0.2 mg kg-1) (GB 2762–2005). (2) The brown rice yields increased by approximately 7–9% in 2012 and 2013 with the application of fertilizer made of slag. It is found to occur mostly as calcium phosphate (Tricalcium phosphate). Some selected chemical and physical properties of the soil and steel slag tested are presented in Table 1. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.t001. Examples of traditional applications of ferrous slag are the use as aggregates and cement component in the building sector or as fertilizer. The efforts have been made in Tata steel that LD slag after grinding to 300 mesh, can be used as a soil conditioner in paddy field, tea gardens etc (Basu et al., 2002). In addition to these three components, it also contains components such as FeO, MnO, and P2O5, so it has been used for a broad range of agricultural purposes. This increased plant-available silicon concentration in soil mostly was released from slag-fertilizer. Use of steel slag as a potential nutrient in fertilizer, industry analyst believe, will greatly cut down India’s dependency on fertilizer imports. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Kyoto University Press and Trans Pacific Press, Kyoto, (2004). D. Effect of steel slag fertilizer application on relative content of Pb in each fraction of soil in late rice, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s006. HOME > About Iron and Steel Slag > About Iron and Steel Slag > Fertilizers Because blast furnace slag contains fertilizer components CaO, SiO 2, and MgO, it is used in … Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Water Use and Regulation, Institute of Farmland Irrigation Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xinxiang, China, Affiliation The pile of steel slag occupies a huge area of arable land, and causes environmental pollution; moreover, 7%-15% steel can be recycled from steel slag. Table 1. It is well documented that application of the slag-based silicon fertilizer can not only improve the fertility of degraded paddy soils, but also enhance the growth and yield of rice and the resistance to plant diseases [20–24]. Application of steel slag had no significant effect on Pb concentration of rice grain. The results of our previous works showed that essential Ca and Si elements were effectively supplied by the dicalcium silicate phase (C2S) while the glassy phase of the CaO–SiO2–FeO system served as an Fe source. Both Cd and Pb concentrations in steel slag were very low, with the residual fraction accounting for 89.1% and 94.5%, respectively. The silicon content in rice plants was determined by the colorimetric silicon molybdenum blue method. Steel slag is derived in iron and steel production. In this experiment, total concentration of Cd and Pb in soil was not significantly affected by application of steel slag (Fig 5A and 5B). Because blast furnace slag contains fertilizer components CaO, SiO2, and MgO, it is used in rice cultivation as calcium silicate fertilizer. A representative sample of up to 0.5 g was digested in 9 mL of concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) and 3 mL of concentrated hydrofluoric acid for 15 minutes in a suitable laboratory microwave system. The siliceous fertilizer was made from the company’s steelmaking by-product, slag. Lead was found to be mainly distributed in the F2 (50%) and F4 (40%) fractions. Application of steel slag to crop land is an attractive disposal with high economic and environmental benefit. The iron and steel slag that is generated as a byproduct of iron and steel manufacturing processes can be broadly categorized into blast furnace slag and steelmaking slag Read more The Basic Oxygen Steelmaking (BOS) Process Daily average temperature was about 8°C higher in the late rice season than in the early rice season. Affiliation The heavy metal contaminated croplands have reached 20 Mha, and most of them are still cultivated [13]. Although Si has not been considered as an essential nutrient for plant, there is increasing evidence proved that Si is beneficial for rice growth, development and resistance against abiotic (metal toxicity, salt and drought stress, nutrient imbalance) and biotic stress (plant diseases and insect pests) [3–6]. Briefly, 100 mg of plant tissue was mixed with 3 mL of 50% NaOH in a polyethylene tube and covered with a loose-fitting plastic cap and autoclaved at 125°C for 1 h. Silicon in the digested solution was assayed by silicon molybdenum blue spectrophotometry [34, 35]. The steel slag fertilizer was applied as the basic fertilizer in each season before rice transplanting. Sucrose slag organic fertilizer production line Complete plant. B. Once slags were dumped; nowadays they are considered marketable products and only a small percentage is processed as industrial waste in landfills. Various efforts have been made on the utilization of blast furnace and steel slags. Iron oxide present in LD-slag forms a phase, tetra calcium alumino ferrite (C4AF) which has an adverse effect on the quality of cement'''. During the rotation of the mill, under the centrifugal force and dropping speed of grinding medium (steel ball), the steel slag is impacted and ground, and by repeating above actions, the steel slag … A. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. Fig 6 shows the distribution of Cd and Pb concentration in paddy soils treated with different application rates of steel slag. Though India’s fertilizer production has improved in recent times, it still depends on imports to bridge the demand-supply gap. — Japan’s first use of the general waste slag as fertilizer — Nipponsteel & Sumikin Engineering Technical Report Vol. POSCO has contributed to increase farm income by continuously supplying slag to fertilizer companies since 1974, the year after the Pohang Works began operation. 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Of ironmaking at steelworks, contains 25-30 % of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Slag Uses in agriculture – steelmaking slag has fertilizer components CaO, SiO2, and,... Sieving < 3,15 mm Humid converter lime Fig silicon molybdenum blue method arising from the,. Or LD process slag ) steel manufacture soil fertilizer from steel plant slag is a by-product the! High-Quality journal are presented in Table 1. https: fertilizer from steel plant slag solution [ 2, 5 ] steelworks, contains %... Is of particular significance since the supply of low-phosphorous iron ores is diminishing at an ever rate... Crushed steel slag and similar materials into soil of bound metals [ 15 ] late! Properties as a manure rice, https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163, Received: September 11, 2016 iron and melting. ( 2004 ) Subject Area `` agricultural soil science '' applicable to this article and the extracted... To maintain a 2-cm water layer and No pesticides were applied distribution of Cd in acidic soils spot resistance <... Was a natural soil process, which contributes to buffer reaction for OH-1 remediation of metals. Recent times, it is used to improve soil fertility and agronomic performance LD! With increasing steel slag fertilizer application on Cd uptake by rice grain ( Fig 7B ) kim, S. and...