APPENDIX H: BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS. It is difficult to predict the future in smart sensing, as the new applications will be driven by the availability of new sensing materials, an improved understanding of the transduction characteristics of "old" materials, and manufacturing techniques for microactuators, microsensors, and microelectronics. Gimzewski, J.K., C. Gerber, and E. Meyer. Potentiometry. Sensors: The Journal of Machine Perception 9(12). 55100 IssueAF. Induced effect. only as the transduction principle and disregarded any "internal" or compound transduction effects that may have taken place. Knowledge of sensors is fundamental for anyone in the field of engineering. Hygrometer. Many recent advances in sensors have not come from the synthesis of new transduction materials (except perhaps for chemical sensors) but rather from microelectronic innovations in low-cost, large-scale manufacturing of interconnections, microelectronics, and micromachining that have allowed more complex sensor systems to be formed using well-known sensor elements. 1982. For instance, it has been shown that reaction of certain gases on a surface can be effectively measured with a novel sensing approach that uses the differential thermal expansion of a bimetallic material and changes in heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the sensor elements (Gimzewski et al., 1994). Sensors and transducers and introduction. Joule (resistive) heating. (Most of the characteristics listed under "static" are also important for dynamic measurements.) (Fluid) Mechanical effects; e.g., diaphragm, gravity balance. A transducer can be part of a more complex sensor, as an intermediate step of energy conversion. Chemi-luminescence. The words sensors and transducers are widely used in association with measurement systems. No standard convention has been established in the technical literature as to whether a modulating sensor should be classified as "passive" or "active"; both terms are used in the literature. SENSORS and TRANSDUCERS INTRODUCTION Course presentation Classification of transducers Transducer descriptions Transducer parameters, definitions and terminology Transducer effects in silicon and other materials Tadeusz Stepinski, Signaler och system 1. 1992. Electro-deposition cell. These references can form a basis from which a more detailed study of any particular sensing technology, principle, or application can be initiated. However, there are additional components to certain sensors. An example of a self-generating sensor is a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Flame ionization. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 16(1):2–5. 1993 Buyer's Guide. Noorlag. TUTORIAL 2 – SENSORS AND PRIMARY TRANSDUCERS This tutorialprovides an overview of instrument sensors used in process and automatic control. 1975. Autotronics. A rigorous attempt at classifying sensors was undertaken by Middlehoek and Noorlag (1982), in which they represented the input and output energy, Length, area, volume, all time derivatives such as linear/angular velocity, linear/angular acceleration, mass flow, force, torque, pressure, acoustic wavelength and acoustic intensity, Temperature, specific heat, entropy, heat flow, state of matter, Voltage, current, charge, resistance, inductance, capacitance, dielectric constant, polarization, electric field, frequency, dipole moment, Field intensity, flux density, magnetic moment, permeability, Intensity, phase, wavelength, polarization, reflectance, transmittance, refractive index, Composition, concentration, reaction rate, pH, oxidation/reduction potential. Optical bistability. View our suggested citation for this chapter. Many early sensors converted (by transduction) a physical measurand to mechanical energy; for example, pneumatic energy was used for fluid controls and mechanical energy for kinematic control. It is useful to anyone studying measurement systems and instrumentation but it is provided mainly in support of the EC module D227 – Control System Engineering. Therefore, alternative sensor taxonomies are also useful. Smart sensors are designed to present a simple face to the host structure via a digital interface, such that the complexity is borne by the sensor and not by the central signal processing system. Electro-optical effects; e.g., Kerr effect, Pockels effect. Instrument Society of America. An example. In order to accelerate the incorporation of emerging sensor materials in new applications, it is critically important that the sensor materials community be able to readily identify sensing needs and to target those physical phenomena that candidate materials could sense. Often sensors incorporate more than one transduction principle; thus, sensors can be conveniently classified simply by their input energy form or signal domain of interest. Photo-acoustic effect. Several key journals dealing with sensing have been included in the bibliography; they are suggested as starting points for investigating the most recent developments and trends in sensor technologies. Section I . Schematic representations of a piezoelectric pressure sensor and a fiberoptic magnetic-field sensor are depicted in Figures 1-3 and 1-4, respectively. Ready to take your reading offline? Magneto-mechanical effects; e.g., piezomagnetic effect. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. There are many examples in the technical literature of smart sensors in which the modulating energy source is discrete from the sensor package/chip. 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